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Version en texte seul Les termes de recherche suivants sont mis en surbrillance : othello dk early days bibliography Early days bibliography Bibliography found at http://www.io.com/~rgatliff/othello/bib3.html Here are a number of articles related to Computers playing Othello/Reversi. Some of the articles apply their techniques to chess, but I saw their usefulness to Othello. Other articles are focus on search algorithms, without regard to game domain. The older computer Othello articles are only of historical interest. I also have nearly all the back issues of Othello Quarterly. I intend to add them to this reference in the future. Entries are in alphabetical order of author.

Creative Computing Staff "Background and Origins of Othello" Personal Computing, July 1980, pp. 87-88. Gives a good one page history of Othello.

Duda, Richard O "Othello, a New Ancient Game" BYTE, October 1977, pp. 60-62. I remember typing this Basic program into my computer. I was 14. It took me longer to type it in than it took me to beat it. :)

Frey, Peter W. "Machine Othello" Personal Computing, July 1980, pp. 89-90 Discusses Othello and his Othello program, written in Basic and does not use lookahead. The article includes a transcript of a match with his program.

Frey, Peter W. "Simulating Human Decision-Making on a Personal Computer" BYTE, July 1980, pp. 56-72. Author describes his experience in developing Othello programs. Discusses the weakness of evaluating purely by square value. And promotes the importance of edge configuration.

Levy, David, and Beal, D. F. [Editors] Describes the use of Genetic Learning Algorithms to optimize the scoring parameters of an evaluator for Othello. Hewlett, Clarence "Hardware Help in an Othello Endgame Analyzer" Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence, the first computer Olympiad, 1989, pp. 219-224 Levy, David, and Beal, D. F. [Editors] Describes the infamous A. Computer from the Othello Quarterly. Presents details of the first and second generation in Othello endgame analyzer built to perform up to 26 ply endgame searches.

Kierulf, Anders "BRAND - An Othello Program" ACM SIGART Newsletter, April 1982, Vol. 80, pp. 98-104 Discusses Othello strategy, statistics and makes comparisons with Chess. Describes Brand 2.2 as a brute-force Othello program: Alpha-Beta with killer responses, rudimentary quiescence search, simple time-control algorithm, and static move ordering. The evaluator used mobility, square occupied, value of discs flipped, and the number of directions in which disc are flipped. Mobility was calculated for both the final depth D and D-1. This was to get around the temporary loss or gain of mobility, which would vanish with the next move.

· Jean-Christophe Weill, "Experiments with the NegaC* Search, An Alternative for Othello Endgame Search"

Levy, David, and Newborn, Monty (1991) "How computers play chess" Besides talking about the history of computer Chess, it has a good introduction to Alpha-Beta, Iterative Deepening, and Hash tables. Each concept is nicely illustrated.

Maggs, Peter B. "Programming Strategies in the Game of Reversi" BYTE, November 1979, pp. 66-78. One of the earliest articles on computer othello. Includes a Basic Program, which performs 2-ply minimax search. The evaluator uses a strategic value for each squares, i.e. Hasegawa weighting, weighted squares, or square priority.

Wright, Ed "OTHELLO" Creative Computing, Nov-Dec 1977, pp. 140-142 Best of Creative Computing, Vol 4., pp. 258-260 Source code for an Othello program written in Fortran. Earliest published program that I know of.

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