As an opening Modifier

A 3 opening is preemptive in every system.

As a response Modifier

To a 1/1/1 opening Modifier

1/1/1 - 3 is a double jump shift, which is either a weak jump shift, showing less than 6 HCPs and 7 s, or a splinter showing support and void or singleton in s.

To a 1 opening Modifier

1-3 is a double raise, usually a limit raise.

To a 1NT opening Modifier

The 3-level responses of a 1NT opening have many possible meanings, which depend on agreements.

To a strong 2 opening Modifier

A jump response to a strong 2 opening shows a very strong single-suiter and slam interest.

To a weak 2 opening Modifier

A single raise of a weak two bid is preemptive and to play.

To a 3/3/3 opening Modifier

This shows a strong hand and a self-sufficient suit, and is forcing.

As an overcall Modifier

A jump overcall of 3 is usually equivalent to a 3 opening, which is preemptive.



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